May 15, 2021

What is textile fiber? Textile fibers and their classification

Textile fibers

Textile fabrics are made up of certain kinds of yarns, and different yarns are made of different fibers.

The so-called fiber refers to a substance with a very fine diameter, generally a few micrometers to several tens of micrometers, a length that is many times greater than the fineness (hundred times, more than a thousand times), and a certain flexibility. Such as cotton, hair, muscles and so on.

There are many kinds of fibers in nature, and all of them can be used for spinning woven fabrics. Only fibers that can be used to produce textile fabrics can be called textile fibers. Such as cotton, appearance, silk, hemp, polyester, nylon, acrylic and so on.

As textile fibers, should have the following properties:

Good physical and mechanical properties

Textile fibers must be processed before they can be used to weave fabrics. Whether in the process of textile processing, or in the process of re-sewing and wearing, they are subjected to a variety of factors, such as stretching, twisting, bending, friction, and repeated external forces, resulting in corresponding textile products. deformation.

2. A certain degree of fineness and length

The fineness and length of the fiber should be suitable for the requirements of the textile processing technology. Due to the fiber in the textile production process, it is generally necessary to twist the fibers together to spin the yarn.

3. Good heat insulation

The clothes must have warm insulation and high temperature and heat resistance, the fiber must be a poor conductor of heat, otherwise it can not adapt to changes in the temperature difference between hot and cold outside temperature.

4. Certain hygroscopicity and breathability

Hygroscopicity and breathability are essential health properties of fibers. Hygroscopicity can easily absorb sweat from the body and make the fabric dyeable. Breathability makes the garment comfortable and cool.

5. Certain chemical stability

Textile fibers must have a certain degree of chemical stability for light, heat, acids, and alkalis, etc. Only in this way can the fibers not be subjected to the above-mentioned substances to reduce the service life and thus cause damage.

6. Certain dyeing properties

Textiles generally have to be printed and dyed with various colors or patterns before they can be used for their final purpose. Therefore, textile fibers should have certain dyeing properties.

Classification of textile fibers

According to the source of fiber

There are many kinds of textile fibers, which can be divided into natural fibers and chemical fibers according to custom and sources.

Natural fiber refers to fiber obtained directly from nature or artificially raised animals and plants. Such as cotton, hemp, wool, silk and so on.

Chemical fiber refers to a fiber made by chemical processing of a natural or synthetic polymer compound. Chemical fibers are further divided into recycled fibers, synthetic fibers, and inorganic fibers.

The classification of textile fibers is as follows:


By fiber length

According to fiber length, textile fibers can be classified into filaments and staple fibers. The length of the filaments is timely or up to 1000 meters, and the average length of a silk is 800 to 1000 meters. Shorter fibers become short fibers, such as cotton fibers typically having a length of 10 to 40 mm, and wool fibers having a length of 50 to 75 mm. Chemical fibers can be made into filaments or staple fibers as required. Chemical short fibers can be further classified as cotton staple fibers: 30 to 40 mm in length, used for imitation of cotton or blended with cotton; medium and long staple fibers: 40 to 75 mm in length For wool-like production; Short-fiber wool: 75 to 150 mm in length for wool-like or blended with wool.

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