July 12, 2020

Textile recycling industry status and trends

Textile recycling industry status and trends The main tasks of the "12th Five-Year Development Plan for Industrial Textiles" emphasize the recycling of waste textiles, focusing on "promoting energy-saving and emission-reduction and focusing on resource recycling", that is, accelerating the development of special fiber recycling technology for industrial textiles. Its application. The use of waste textiles is extremely extensive, especially in the field of industrial textiles, which has obvious advantages. The consumption of waste textiles is a great article to be done. For example, waste textile fibers that have been opened and processed have a fineness of 22 mm or more and can be re-spun; To this demanded staple fiber, it can be extended to automotive materials and building materials. The production of wall materials, cement-reinforced materials, fire-strength belts and other industrial textiles has become an outlet for the elimination of waste textiles.

More than half of the “Twelve Five Years” process, the proportion of raw fiber as a raw material for non-woven fabrics has become lower and lower, and six major areas of industrial use are gradually starting to use recycled fibers instead of primary fibers. Some medical spunlace non-woven fabrics have begun to use recycled polyester staple fibers; stitched non-woven fabrics made from recycled spun polyester staple fibers are widely used in shopping bags, curtains, bed textile products, construction waterproof materials and shoe materials, etc. The hot-rolled non-woven fabric produced by blending recycled polyester staple fiber with some low melting point fibers has been widely used in medical materials, nursing hygiene, garment accessories, shoe linings, home decoration, automobile industry, aviation tourism, etc. A variety of areas; Hong Kong-Bao, Mauribus midplane and other products have completely no longer use the original fiber.

Since 2002, China's recycled fiber industry has entered a period of rapid growth in capacity expansion and technological progress. Leaded by the Institute of Military Equipment Research of the General Logistics Department, the China National Textile and Apparel Council, the China Resources Comprehensive Utilization Association and the Beijing Institute of Clothing and Clothing jointly promote the recycling of used textiles. Nowadays, there have been major advances in industrial planning, legislative progress, and application docking. This website will present two parts of the research results.

Different fiber components are assigned to their respective industrial uses

Waste textiles not only have many varieties, but also involve various fiber components such as cotton, wool, silk, hemp, chemical fiber, and blended fibers. Usually used textiles are garments made of natural fibers such as cotton, wool, and hemp, which can be made into composite materials, heat preservation materials, and filler materials after reprocessing after recycling. After chemical fiber garments are recycled, they can be used as recycled fibers to make industrial textiles, such as filters, waterproof materials, composite materials, and packaging materials, used in construction, environmental protection, agriculture, transportation and other fields.

China's waste textile production will exceed 100 million tons

According to the average life expectancy of a piece of clothing from 3 to 4 years, if China, on average, purchases 5 to 10 pieces of new clothes each year, it abandons 3 to 5 pieces of old clothes each year.

The per capita annual output of garbage in urban areas in China is 440 kg, and the total annual average amount of garbage in China is 150 million tons. According to statistics, waste textiles in urban waste in China account for 3.5% to 4% of the total waste and old materials.

According to the forecast of the China Resources Comprehensive Utilization Association, by the end of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan”, the accumulated amount of waste textiles in China will exceed 100 million tons, including 70 million tons of chemical fibers and 30 million tons of natural fibers.

In 2011, the total amount of waste textiles produced in China reached 26 million tons, and the comprehensive utilization rate was less than 10%. Most of them were not properly recycled. According to statistics, the total daily household garbage removal in Shanghai is 10,500 tons, of which waste fabrics account for about 3%. Shanghai is mixed every year in household garbage, and the number of waste fabrics that have been landfilled and incinerated is 13 Ten thousand tons. In 2011, the total volume of domestic garbage removal and transportation in Guangzhou reached 5.04 million tons, and the proportion of textile waste in Guangzhou's domestic waste was increasing. From 5.88% in 2004 to 10.28% in 2009, Guangzhou City 1 Annual textile waste can reach hundreds of thousands of tons.

According to the average life expectancy of a piece of clothing from 3 to 4 years, if China's average person purchases 5 to 10 pieces of new clothes per year, each person abandons 3 to 5 pieces of old clothes each year. China's 1.3 billion people annually produce used clothes. Will reach 3.9 billion to 6.5 billion pieces. Taking cotton as an example, an average of about 60 grams of cotton is used for a T-shirt. Cotton plants occupy land and use pesticides. If old clothes are reused or recycled, or recycled fiber is produced, it will help reduce the consumption of cotton and alleviate the shortage of domestic raw material resources.

Greatly reduce the dependence on the import of textile raw materials in China

During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, China's textile consumption will increase by 12%. At present, China's per capita textile fiber consumption is 17 kg, and it will increase to 21 kg in 2015.

During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, China's textile consumption will increase by 12%. In 2011, the textile industry consumed 41.30 million tons of raw materials, of which more than 60% depended on imports. Due to shortage of resources, in addition to importing mulberry silk, China needs to import a large amount of petrochemical raw materials for cotton, wool, and synthetic fiber production each year. China has become a global importer of textile raw materials. At present, China's per capita textile fiber consumption is 17 kg, and it will increase to 21 kg in 2015.

According to estimates, with an annual output of 26 million tons of waste textiles and a comprehensive utilization rate of 60%, it will save 9.4 million tons of chemical fiber (equivalent to the annual output of 12 Yizheng Chemical Fiber Plant) and 4.7 million tons of natural fibers. Annual savings of 18.8 million tons of crude oil (equivalent to half the output of Daqing Oilfield), saving about 189.933 million square meters of cultivated land, accounting for 46% of the annual cotton cultivated area, and will greatly reduce China's textile raw material import dependence.

95% of textiles worldwide can be recycled

For each kilogram of waste textile used, 3.6 kilograms of carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, saving 6,000 liters of water, and using 0.3 kilograms of fertilizer and 0.2 kilograms of pesticides.

When used clothes are discarded as rubbish, if they are incinerated, they not only consume energy such as coal and electricity, but they themselves generate a lot of pollutants, including carbon dioxide and burned ash. If it is landfilled, it will not only occupy land but also produce harmful substances that will also pollute soil and water. Therefore, the old clothes are worn twice, used as rags, or refurbished to continue to realize its use value and extend the service life, which can reduce the amount of waste generated from fabrics and reduce the amount of domestic waste.

The processing of waste textiles into recycled fibers can be used as the skeleton of composite materials; for short-length recycled fibers that cannot be spun, they can be used to make industrial nonwovens, used in automotive thermal insulation and sofa cushions.

A study conducted by the Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) in 2008 at the University of Copenhagen in Sweden concluded that for every kilogram of waste textile used, 3.6 kilograms of CO2 emissions can be reduced, saving 6,000 liters of water, reducing the use of 0.3 kilograms of chemical fertilizers and 0.2 kg of pesticide. The textile industry reclaims and uses large amounts of waste fabrics, which significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions compared to the processing of raw materials.

At present, 95% of the textiles in the world can be recycled, but most of the waste clothes are taken to landfills. To prevent waste textiles from becoming waste, the principle of management priority is to: First, reduce the production of waste textiles, such as multi-use and secondary use; Second, use of resources, such as the use of recycled fibers, to achieve sustainable recycling of resources; Finally, the Reuse and reuse of the end of fabric management, landfill or incineration.

Save the production of non-woven fabrics 35% energy

According to statistics, after the recycling of used clothes per ton, it can produce 0.99 tons of non-woven fabrics, which is equivalent to saving 1.1 tons of textile raw materials, and also saves 35% of the energy of producing equivalent non-woven fabrics.

As textile raw materials come from agriculture, animal husbandry and petroleum chemical fiber industry, China, as a global population with a large population, consumes a huge amount of fabric raw materials, and resource shortage is a long-standing problem. According to statistics, 0.99 tons of non-woven fabrics or 0.99 tons of color separation cotton yarns can be produced after the recycling of used clothes per ton, which means that it saves 1.1 tons of textile raw materials or 0.8 tons of cotton, and also saves 35% of the energy of producing equivalent non-woven fabrics. , Saving 20% ​​of the energy of the same cotton yarn.

The “Twelfth Five-Year Development Plan for Textile Industry” explicitly stated that it is necessary to achieve a recycling rate of 20% to 40% for waste textiles at the end of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan”. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to dispose of waste textiles annually. Below 10 million tons, nearly 500 recycling production lines are required to meet the processing needs. In this process, the waste textile recycling and recycling industry will generate nearly 10 billion yuan in output value.

Only a few cities set up recycling channels in some communities

"Waste clothes recycling bins" have entered 500 communities in Shanghai. In 2012, the recycling volume of 996 recycling bins was 305 tons, accounting for 3% of the amount of waste clothes produced in Shanghai.

At present, there are only a few communities in some cities in China. Waste recycling bins have been set up. From the perspective of the cities where old clothes recycling bins have been set up, three cities in Shanghai, Hangzhou and Bao’an have achieved remarkable results, with a large amount of recycling. After the residents’ unused clothes are recycled, they are donated to public welfare organizations and secondary uses are realized.

Since 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Greening and Urban Appearance has begun to collect old clothes for recycling in the city. At present, the “recycled clothes recycling box” has entered 500 communities in 11 districts of Shanghai. In 2012, the recycling volume of 996 recycling bins It is 305 tons, accounting for 3% of the amount of waste clothing produced in Shanghai. Since April 2012, the Hangzhou Municipal Government has started the donation of old clothes, and has established old clothes donation points in 50 street communities in the city, breaking the “annual once” frequency of reception and recycling “once a month”. Old clothes. Since December 2012, Bao’an District, Shenzhen has established 100 clothing recycling bins in more than 50 residential areas, recycled 2,143 kg of used clothing, and donated 335 kg of clothing through public welfare organizations.

Circular economy revisit the product life cycle

In 1990, the British environmental economist Perth and Turner used the term “recycling economy” for the first time in his book “Natural Resources and Environmental Economics”. In 1996, Germany promulgated the "Circular Economy and Waste Management Law." For the first time, the concept of circular economy was used in the national legal text. Taking the circular economy as a guide to re-examine the product life cycle, we must not only consider the production, sales, and consumption of products, but also must consider the development and acquisition of raw materials, energy before production, and the disposal of waste after consumption. Therefore, the product life cycle expands into a closed loop process of “resource-production-sales-consumption-waste conversion to renewable resources”.

Four Patterns of Developed Circular Economy in Developed Countries

In the long-term practice, the developed countries have gradually explored the formation of four basic models for the development of circular economy, so that the circular economy is effectively and effectively carried out at the three levels of the enterprise, region and society.

In the long-term practice, the developed countries have gradually explored the formation of four basic models for the development of circular economy, so that the circular economy is effectively and effectively carried out at the three levels of the enterprise, region and society.

The first is the small-cycle model established at the enterprise level. The most famous is the DuPont Chemical Company of the United States, also known as the DuPont model. Through the implementation of cleaner production, comprehensive utilization of resources and energy, organization of material circulation among various processes within the company, extension of the production chain, reduction of the use of materials and energy in the production process, minimization of waste and toxic substances, to the maximum The use of renewable resources will ultimately result in zero emissions.

Secondly, at the regional level, the regional eco-industrial park has the Karen Fort model in Denmark. In accordance with its own resources, the Kalundborg Industrial District supplies the heat of the power plant to refineries and pharmaceutical plants while simultaneously solving the heat supply of the surrounding residents. The **calcium produced by power plants is used as a raw material for gypsum board plants and can be made thin. The power plants use fly ash from coal burning to build roads and supply small cement plants. Refinery wastewater can be supplied to power plants for cooling. This creates a cyclical relationship between power plants, gypsum board factories, oil refineries, and pharmaceutical plants, which not only reduces waste generation and disposal costs, but also creates a virtuous circle of symbiosis between companies.

The third is the waste recycling and reuse system at the social level, also known as the DSD model. The basic characteristics are: the establishment of recycling and recycling systems for waste materials, and the recycling of materials and energy during and after the consumption process. The German Waste Binary Recycling System (DSD) is its typical representative. DSD is a non-profit social intermediary organization that organizes the recycling of packaging waste. In 1995, it was composed of 95 product manufacturers, packaging manufacturers, commercial companies, and garbage collection departments. At present, 16,000 companies have joined.

The fourth is the social circular economy system at the social level. It is better to do Japan (see later in the case).

Closed loop mode maximizes resource utilization

The traditional single-program product life cycle is an extensive and open development model of “resources-products-waste”. After the product is discarded, it is treated as garbage that is burned or landfilled.

The circular economy is centered on the efficient use and recycling of resources, and the material flow method has been transformed from the traditional "resource-product-waste" single-program model to the "resource-product-consumption-recycled resource" closed-loop model. By implementing the principle of dematerialization of “reduction, reuse, and recycling” (abbreviated as the 3R principle) in the production and service processes, maximization of resource utilization and minimization of waste emissions are achieved, thereby achieving resource conservation and improvement. The purpose of the ecological environment.

If from the perspective of recycling economy, a piece of clothing enters the abandoned stage, only the reuse and recycling of 3R can be realized, namely, the use of renewable resources and the recovery of energy, in a closed loop mode, that is, Resource-product-consumption-renewable resources, under the mode of recycling of material resources, can return from resources to resources to promote the coordinated development of economy, environment, and society.

At present, there are mainly four kinds of disposal methods for waste textiles at home and abroad, namely, reuse (secondary use), resource recycling (recycled fiber processing), energy utilization (incineration), and landfill (waste disposal). Among them, reuse (secondary use) and resource recycling (recycled fiber processing) is the recycling of waste textiles as reusable and renewable resources.

Governments of developed countries strengthen laws and regulations

The developed countries attach great importance to the recovery and reuse of waste textiles. Developed countries in the textile industry such as Europe, the United States and Japan have long started to formulate relevant laws and regulations and strategic objectives for the recycling of waste fabrics. The active support of the government has greatly promoted the use of waste textiles. Recovery and recycling work.

EU launches EU Waste Directive

The EU Waste Directive (WFD 2008/98/EC), which came into force in December 2010, not only modifies the concept of waste, but also includes a series of waste management measures for waste reduction and maximization of recycling and recycling. Management measures also apply to the disposal and reuse of waste fabrics.

France launches "Draft Waste Recycling and Treatment Act"

The French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development released the draft Decree on the recycling and disposal of waste generated from new textile and apparel products, shoes and household linen on September 11, 2007 (notification G/TBT/N/FRA/66). 》 The draft decree sets out the organizational procedures for the extension of producer responsibility and plans for textile waste. The independent organizations and agencies established by these product wholesalers for the recycling and disposal of their products or donations must be approved or approved by the government department.

Germany launches "Circular Economy and Waste Management Law"

Germany promulgated the "Circular Economy and Waste Management Law" in 1996, which stipulates that the priority of waste problems is "to avoid production - recycling - final disposal". First, it is necessary to reduce the amount of pollutants produced at the source of the economy. Therefore, the industrial sector should try to avoid the discharge of various wastes at the production stage and at the use stage of consumers; secondly, wastes and consumers that cannot be reduced and can be used at the source must be eliminated. The used packaging waste, used goods, etc. must be recycled and used to return them to the economic cycle.

Britain proposes "zero waste economy" social development goal

The British government has proposed the social development goal of a “zero-waste economy”. The British government advocates that all people consider garbage as an available resource, especially waste fabrics, which are considered as recyclable, reusable resources and no longer treated as garbage. The Ministry of the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom conducted an investigation of the annual life cycle of 2 million tons of clothing and assessed 116 million tons of textile waste in England and Northern Ireland.

U.S. proposes to achieve "zero landfill" of textile waste by 2037

In 1976, the federal government of the United States established a "Solid Waste Disposal Act." At present, there are more than a dozen states that have established disposal regulations for waste bottles, and more than 20 states have enacted regulations that prohibit disposal of waste in courtyards. Nearly half of the states have recycled more than 30% of solid waste.

Waste textile recycling patterns vary

In the past few decades, the number of waste textiles in the United States, Japan, and Europe has grown rapidly. Many garments or other textiles have been disposed of as rubbish after one-off use. The consumption of clothing due to fast fashion has increased sharply, and has been rapidly rejuvenated. The number of garments rose rapidly. In the past 20 years, textile waste collection has become a large independent industry, and recycling of textile fiber waste is almost everywhere. After recycling waste textiles, at least half of them can be reused. Textile recycling has not only become a commercialized economic activity, but also belongs to an environment-friendly environmental protection industry and is therefore highly respected by countries.

Taking "producer responsibility system" as its strategic goal

The strategic goal of the “producer responsibility system” is to establish a recycling society that “turns today’s waste into something new and available.” Swedish fast fashion brand enterprise, H&M Fashion Company launched a campaign called “H&MConscious” recycling used clothes at global chain stores to promote low-carbon concepts and reduce textile waste. H&M hopes to form a closed sales and recycling system in the future to minimize textile waste.

The whole process of domestic waste management is reduced from the source

As early as 1976, the United States attached great importance to the management of the whole process of municipal solid waste, and gradually formed a distinctive model of urban household waste management. The main feature of this model is source reduction. Source reduction refers to the reduction of the toxicity of the junk or the reduction of the quantity of junk caused by any change in the way the product is turned into trash before it is designed, manufactured, purchased or used. Source reduction measures mainly include: improving the design of products or packaging, and strive to reduce the amount of materials used to make it easy to recycle.

"Dual recycling system" for families and small groups

The most distinctive feature of Germany is its dual recycling system. This is a non-profit social intermediary organization that organizes recycling of packaging waste. Its main goal is to establish a nationwide recycling package for households and small groups. , Recycling system, operating mode, including street recycling system and turn-in recycling system.

Established Texaid Corporation to implement effective recycling

The six humanitarian aid agencies in Switzerland jointly established Texaid Co., Ltd. in 1978 with the aim of effectively recycling and using Swiss old clothes. Households generally put old clothes that are going to be phased out into plastic bags that are regularly sent by the post office and are placed outside their homes. The company’s service personnel in each residential area take these plastic bags away; The clothes were sent directly to the old clothes recycling bin established by the company.

Japanese Resource Recycling System Enterprise Practical Cases

From the 1980s, the Japanese government began to formulate a series of laws and regulations to promote circular economy. In 2000, the "Basic Law for Promoting a Circulation-based Society" was promulgated, and 3R (reduction, reuse, and recycling of resources) was vigorously promoted, marking a comprehensive transition from a mass-consumption, mass-discarded society to a recycling-oriented society. In addition, Japan has also formulated a series of supporting laws and regulations, such as the "Waste Disposal Law", "Recycling Resources Utilization Promotion Law", "Building Materials Recycling Law", "Food Recycling Law", "Container and Packaging Materials Cycle The "Law of Use", "Recycling of Household Appliances", "Green Purchasing Law" and "Automobile Recycling Law" have provided legal protection for building a recycling-oriented society.

Case I: Uniqlo

Old clothes processed into thermal insulation

Some apparel companies in Japan have entered a stagnant period of development in the past few years. In recent years, they have gradually exposed prosperity by producing environmentally-friendly clothes. Japan's resource regeneration system consists of three subsystems: a waste recycling system, a waste dismantling, utilization system, and a harmless treatment system.

As the top three global fast-fashion brand enterprises, Japan's Uniqlo, a large-scale garment manufacturing and retailing company, has become a successful model for clothing companies to take responsibility for the recycling and recycling of used clothes. Uniqlo mainly recycles clothing that is no longer needed by customers, and then donates clothes to refugee camps all over the world. The waste clothes that can no longer be used are used as fuel and fiber for recycling. , Eliminate waste and avoid waste clothing becoming rubbish to reduce pressure on the environment. Uniqlo took the initiative to assume the responsibility of reducing environmental burdens.

Eighty to ninety percent of clothing recovered from Uniqlo will be sorted and disinfected and then donated to refugees through the UN refugee agency and non-profit organization Japan Rescue Clothing Center. Therefore, the old clothes are mainly recycled. 2% to 6% will be processed into heat-insulating materials, and 10% to 20% of old clothes will be used for power generation.

Case 2: Teijin Group

Build recycling recycling system

At present, Teijin Group of Japan has a recycling technology, including: recycling of new raw materials for polyester, recycling from fiber to fiber (chemical recycling of polyester fiber), chemical recycling of polylactic acid, polycarbonation Chemical recycling of ester resins, easy recycling materials.

After the fiber-to-fiber recycling and recycling process is carried out by converting PET bottles into fiber products, if these fiber products cannot be recycled, the cycle will be completed once. This is not a true recycling and recycling system.

In order to construct such a complete circulatory system, the “ECOCIRCLE” system is formed with apparel manufacturers, distribution companies, administrative units, etc., and research, development, commercialization, recycling, and reuse of recycled and recycled products are jointly performed. Add "ECOCCIRCLE" product certification marks to these recycled and recycled products. Currently, more than 150 apparel and sporting goods manufacturers in Japan and abroad have jointly developed and recycled products, and jointly established the “ECOCIRCLE recycling and recycling system”.

In Teijin Group's "ECOCIRCLE Recycling and Recycling System", uniforms, fashion, sportswear, and curtains can be recycled into new fibers indefinitely; polyester products recovered from users can be recycled into new fibers indefinitely; and Recycling does not result in a decline in quality. Each time it is a brand-new fiber that is exactly the same as oil-produced products. Because it is recycled, it can suppress the use of oil resources and greatly reduce the generation of waste; Compared with ester raw materials, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions can be significantly reduced. CO2 emissions and energy use are only about 1/5 of that, and CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 80%.

Flame retardant clothing are garments made of fabrics with flame retardant properties that protect workers from fire. According to the style can be divided into FR Coveralls, FR Jackets, Fr Shirts, Fr Pants , FR Suits , FR Bibs , FR knitted t-shirt and so on. Customers can choose the style that suits them according to their working environment, and we support ODM.Customers can design the flame retardant clothing styles they want for us to produce.
Advantages of flame retardant clothing:
Customized production
Have an embroidery factory
Provide free samples
Professional quality inspection team
Accessories of flame retardant clothing:
We have a professional procurement team with 10 years of overseas procurement experience. We can purchase global accessories according to customer requirements, collect and select materials from all major exhibitions, and provide you with the most cost-effective accessories!
Certification:
Xinke protective flame retardant clothing is suitable for your employees and required by law in wide industries and is regulated by numerous safety standards boards. Xinke Protective has acquired the certificates, such as ISO 9001, ISO 14000, SA 8000, WRAP, CE, UL.
Application:
Xinke protective flame retardant clothing are widely used in petroleum, chemical, natural gas, electric welding, fire protection, offshore operations and coal mining industries.
Quality is the soul of an enterprise, hope fully we can have a chance to serve you!
FAQ
Q: How to ensure your the delivery time?
A: -We have modern automated assembly lineproduction equipment, just 120 seconds is needed from the first process to the last one;
 -Moreover,we have prepared finished fabrics which can be produced into clothes immediately to short the delivery time to15-20 days;
 -Urgent order will be deal with immediately.
Q: What`s your payment terms?
A: EXW, FOB, CNF, CIF and L/C payment terms etc.
  Other terms can be negotiated.
Q:Can you producesmallorders?
A:Yes,we do. If your order is smaller than our MOQ, we can arrange special for you but the cost would be higher.
Q: How to ensure your product quality?
A:We have the;the most advanced testing equipment. Two inspections are taken in the factory and the laboratoryto ensure that each batch ofproduct is with high quality.
Q: What`s your main market?
A: Our clients are all over the world, having mature market in Europe, Malaysia, Indonesia etc, exporting large quantity FR garments every month by container quantities.

Q: Do you provide the sample? How long it takes?
A: Sample can be provided.
Delivery time: Regular item in stock can be delivery in 1-2 days.
Your Customize will takes 7-10 days.
Q: Do you supply OEM service? Can you make as our design? Also I want to put our LOGO on protective clothing?
A: Yes, we can customize the design for you, which exactly as your demand.Your LOGO can be put on clothing by format of EMBROIDERY, SCREEN PRINTING etc as requested.

Q: How many times washing your FR garment can endure?
A: More than 50 washing time for Europe standard.
  More than 100 washing time for NFPA standard.

  Washing time can be customize according to require and market.


Q: Is that possible to be your agent or distributor?
A: Yes, of course. We are glad to work with you together to develop the market.
  Feel free to contact us for more information.
  We are the OEM manufacturer for FR Workwear, we are developing partners to occupy our market share.

Flame Retardant Garments

Flame Retardant Garments,Fire Retardant Coverall,Flame Resistant Clothing,Fire Protective Clothing

Xinxiang Xinke Protective Technology Co, Ltd. , https://www.coverallsuit.com